By 1853, the city had over 1 million people. Only one house in five had running water; of these, most only had plumbing on the ground floor. Napoleon III tapped Baron Haussmann to renovate . The goal was to ease traffic by creating large boulevards and to promote hygiene by integrating a clean water and sewage system, as well as to house the burgeoning upper class. Featuring an intricate cut stone façade, the common layout in a Haussmannian style building is large apartments (200 to 300 m²) with multiple salons de reception, marble fireplaces, chevron parquet floors, high ceilings with elaborate crown moldings, and a grand stairwell with an elevator to the side rather than in the center. Found around the grand boulevards in the center of and in the 8th, 10th, 14th, 15th,16th, 17th, 18th, 20th arrondissements.